Nā ʻano Drone: He aha lākou? ʻO ka hana a me nā mea hou aku

ʻIke ʻia nā Drones ma muli o nā hoʻohana like ʻole i hāʻawi ʻia iā lākou a me kā lākou hāʻawi ʻana i ka mākeke, hiki iā mākou ke hana i nā hana like ʻole a ma muli o ka noi i hāʻawi ʻia iā lākou, e loaʻa iā lākou kahi hoʻolālā, ma kēia ʻatikala. e ʻike ʻoe i ke ʻano o ka drone a me nā ʻano o nā drones

ʻano o nā drones

He aha ka drone / drone?

No ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i ke ʻano o ka drone, e hoʻomaka mākou e kamaʻilio e pili ana i kāna etymology, ka inoa ponoʻī, me ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana he huaʻōlelo ia i ʻike ʻia ma ka puke iwakāluakūmākolu o ka Dictionary of the Spanish language a ua loaʻa ia mai ka ʻōlelo Pelekania. ʻalalā. 

Mai laila mai ʻelua kumu nui e noʻonoʻo ai, ʻo ka mua e pili ana i ke ʻano o ke kākau ʻana a ʻo ka lua e pili ana i kāna unuhi. E hoʻomaka me ka mea mua e wehewehe i ka ʻae ʻia e kākau i ka drone (ma ka ʻōlelo hoʻokahi) a me nā drones (ma ka plural) a i ʻole drone indistinctly, no ka mea, he hoʻololi ia o ka ʻōlelo Pelekane i ka ʻōlelo Sepania a ʻaʻole pono e kau. ma ka italic a i ʻole e hoʻopili i nā kaha puanaʻi.

Pēlā nō, ma ke ʻano o ka haʻi ʻana ma ka waha, ʻaʻohe ʻokoʻa no ka mea like ke kani o ka drone me ka drone. No laila, ʻaʻole ʻoe hopohopo e pili ana i ka haʻi ʻana iā ia ma ke ala hewa, ʻo ka generalization o kēia huaʻōlelo ua ʻae i ka ʻike ʻana i kona manaʻo me ka ʻole o ka huikau e hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā huaʻōlelo Pelekane ʻē aʻe i loaʻa nā unuhi like ʻole i nā ʻōlelo ʻē aʻe i loko o ka huaʻōlelo like.

ʻOiai ua hoʻohana mua ʻia e kuhikuhi i nā mea like me nā mokulele unmanned, aia kekahi mau mea i manaʻo ʻole ʻia he drones. ʻO ia ke kumu i ʻōlelo ʻia ai lākou ma ke ʻano he mau kaʻa lewa ʻole a i ʻole nā ​​mokulele unmanned. Ma hope e ʻike mākou i nā mea hiki ke manaʻo ʻia he drones a ʻaʻole hiki, a e ʻike ʻia ke kumu he mea maʻamau ka ʻike ʻana i nā wehewehe o ka huaʻōlelo e kau ai iā lākou he robots lele.

No nā acronyms i hoʻohana pū ʻia ma kahi o ka drone a me nā mea like, ʻo ia: UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), RPAS (e pili ana i nā mokulele unpiloted a ʻo ia hoʻi ma ka ʻōlelo Pelekania ʻo Remotely Piloted Aircraft System) kahi i kuhikuhi ʻia aia aia. he pailaka nana e hoomalu ia mea.

UAV (ʻo ia hoʻi ma ka ʻōlelo Pelekania Kaʻa Uila Unmanned kahi i loaʻa ai nā acronyms mua i ʻōlelo ʻia) a hope loa ʻo UAS (ʻo ia hoʻi Pūnaehana Lewa ʻole nona ka unuhi ʻana i ka ʻōlelo Paniolo he "unmanned aerial system"). ʻO kēia mau acronyms a pau e pili ana i nā mea like ʻole i hoʻokele mamao ʻia a ʻaʻohe kanaka.

I kēia manawa, hiki iā mākou ke ʻōlelo he mau kaʻa kaʻa mamao e hoʻomaikaʻi ʻia i kahi kāmela i loaʻa iā lākou i ko lākou ʻano, hiki iā lākou ke ala aʻe i ka hoʻololi ʻana i hana ʻia e nā kaʻa a lākou e hoʻohana ai, i hoʻopili ʻia i nā propellers.

He mea nui e hoʻomaopopo ʻo ka kaʻa ʻāina i hoʻokele mamao ʻia ʻaʻole ia he drone, ʻoiai he mau ʻano like kona, ʻaʻole ia e hāʻule i loko o kēia wehewehe ma muli o nā mea āpau a mākou i wehewehe ai ma luna e pili ana i kāna wehewehe etymological.

nā ʻano drones

Ke noʻonoʻo nei mākou i ʻōlelo ai he mau mea lele kēia me ka ʻole o ka pailaka a ʻaʻohe ohua (no ka nui o nā ʻano drones i hana ʻia no lākou), hoʻokō lākou i nā hana ʻokoʻa mai nā mokulele (e pili ana mākou i ka halihali) a hilinaʻi i ka ʻo ia mau noi aia nā ʻano like ʻole. Pēlā nō, ʻo ke ala i kapa ʻia ai lākou e hoʻokaʻawale iā lākou mai kekahi i kekahi, ke ʻano o kā lākou ʻano a me kā lākou mau ʻāpana a me nā lula e hoʻokele ai i ko lākou lele ʻana ma nā ʻāina like ʻole.

ma muli o ka ʻenekini a lākou e hoʻohana ai

ʻO ka mana ea o kahi drone, nā neʻe āna e hana ai a me ka wikiwiki o kona noho ʻana i ka lewa, ʻo ia nā mea e mālama ai i ka ʻenekini i hoʻohana ʻia e ka mea hana a i ʻole kekahi o nā ʻano drones. Nui nā ʻano kaʻa kaʻa i hiki ke loaʻa i kahi kaʻa lewa ʻole, ma waena o nā ʻano drones hiki iā ʻoe ke loaʻa i ka brushless (ʻo ia ka poʻe ʻaʻole polu) a me ka brush/ed (ʻo ia ka poʻe i loaʻa nā pulu).

Hiki ke ʻano ʻokoʻa nā kaʻa ma muli o nā hāmeʻa āu e kamaʻilio nei, no laila maikaʻi ke ʻike e pili ana iā lākou. Nā ʻano o nā kaʻa uila hiki ke loaʻa i kēlā me kēia o lākou.

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Mīkini palaki ʻole

ʻAʻohe o kēia kaʻa i nā pulupulu i kona ʻano, ʻaʻole ia e hoʻohana i kēlā mea e hoʻololi i ka polarity o ka rotor ʻoiai ʻo ia ka uila, ʻo ia ka mea liʻiliʻi loa e hana ai. Ma waho aʻe o ia mea, ʻoi aku ka maʻalahi o kāna mālama ʻana, aneane liʻiliʻi, kahi e kū ai i waena o nā ʻano drones like ʻole.

Ke kamaʻilio nei mākou e pili ana i ka hana o ka kaʻa, ʻike ʻia no kona pono a me ka pono, ʻo ka manawa o ke ola e pili ana i ka mea hana, akā he koho maikaʻi lākou no nā drones. ʻOi aku ko lākou mana ma mua o nā kaʻa o nā ʻano drone hou aʻe: hiki iā lākou ke hāʻawi kokoke i ʻekolu manawa ʻoi aku ka wikiwiki ma mua o ka mīkini palaki.

Hoʻohana maʻamau ia e nā multi-rotors e hiki ke hāʻawi i ka neʻe ʻana i nā propellers, ʻo kekahi mea maikaʻi e ʻike ʻia mai iā lākou ʻo ia ka lōʻihi o kā lākou hana ʻana no ka mea ʻaʻole ia e hoʻohua i ka lole e like me nā kaʻa ʻē aʻe.

Eia naʻe, ʻaʻole maikaʻi nā mea a pau ke kamaʻilio mākou e pili ana i kēia ʻano mīkini. ʻO kahi hapa nui o kēia mau kaʻa e hana wale ana me ka ʻāwili ʻē aʻe, ʻo ia ke kumu i hele pū ʻia ai lākou me kahi mea hoʻokele uila uila a i ʻole ka mea hoʻololi uila e hiki ai i ka wikiwiki o ka holo ʻana o nā propellers o kēia ʻano kaʻa.

E pili ana i ka hana a i ʻole ka mana i loaʻa iā lākou, hiki ke ʻike i ke ʻano haʻahaʻa a kiʻekiʻe paha ma ka ʻike ʻana i nā helu i kapa ʻia lākou (Laʻana: EMAX 2204 -200 KV), me kēia mau helu hiki ke hoʻoholo, ma ka mua, ka lōʻihi o ke kaʻa a me kona kiʻekiʻe.

ʻano o nā drones

ʻO ka lua, ʻo ka kilo volts i loaʻa iā ia a i ʻole ka maikaʻi o ke kaʻa, ʻoiai e pili ana kēia i ka helu o nā huli i loaʻa iā ia, ka mana o nā magnets, ke ʻano o ke kelepona keleawe āna e hoʻohana ai, ke ʻano o kāna hoʻolālā, etc. e olelo ana KV = Kilovolt Pono e hoʻomaopopo ʻia ʻo ia ka mau o nā kipi i loaʻa i ka hāmeʻa, ma muli o ka helu o KV i loaʻa iā ia, hiki ke ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo wai ka ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi e hoʻohālikelike ʻia me kekahi o kāna papa like.

mīkini palaki

ʻO ka mīkini palaki, ʻo ia ka mea e hoʻohana i nā pulupulu, he ʻuʻuku loa ia, pono ʻoi aku ka mālama ʻana ma mua o nā ʻano drones ʻē aʻe no ka mea aia kēia ʻāpana, akā ʻo ka kaʻa ka mea i ʻike pinepine ʻia i nā drones. hoʻohana ʻia e ka leʻaleʻa.

ʻAʻole e like me nā kaʻa brushless, ʻaʻohe o nā ʻano like ʻole o ka mana i ka wā e hoʻohālikelike ai mākou i nā hiʻohiʻona i loko o kēia helu helu, ma ke ʻano he mana like lākou āpau akā ʻokoʻa lākou i ka nui a me ka hoʻolālā. ʻOiaʻiʻo, hiki ke hoʻomaopopo ʻia ʻoi aku ka nui o lākou, ʻoi aku ka nui o ka mana e loaʻa iā lākou, akā ʻo ka mea e hiki mai ana ʻaʻole lākou e pili pololei me ka propeller.

ʻO kona hoʻolālā e hiki ai iā mākou ke hoʻomaopopo he ʻelua mau huila niho e hiki ai i ka neʻe ʻana o ke kaʻa, no laila ʻaʻole hiki ke hoʻonui ʻia ka mana a ʻo ia ke kumu i lōʻihi ai ko lākou ola, ʻoi aku ka hana mau, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka noi no ka alternating current a ʻae i ka ʻoi aku ka maʻalahi o ka mālama ʻana i ka drone.

ʻO kahi hemahema o nā brushed brushed ʻoi aku ka nui o ka ʻaʻahu no ka mea ʻo ka friction i hana ʻia e ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka polarity e hōʻino i nā pulupulu, ʻo ia ke kumu, e like me ka mea i hōʻike ʻia ma luna nei, ʻoi aku ka koi o ka mālama. I kekahi mau hihia, pono e hoʻololi i nā pulupulu e hoʻonui i ke ola o ke kaʻa.

ʻO kekahi pōmaikaʻi ʻē aʻe, ʻaʻole lākou e koi i ka mana uila uila, ʻoiai ua pau ka mana, ʻaʻole ia he hana kiʻekiʻe a he haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa, ʻo kēia ʻano kaʻa e hiki ai i kāu drone ke ola lōʻihi inā hoʻohana ʻia. me ke akahele a ʻaʻole e piʻi nui ka loaʻa ʻana.

No ke koho ʻana i kahi drone no kāna ʻenekini, pono ʻoe e noʻonoʻo aia kekahi mau mea e hoʻohuli i ka hana o ka mīkini a no laila ʻo ka drone ponoʻī, e like me ka nui o ke kaumaha, ka pākaukau a me kona ʻano. Pēlā nō, ʻo ka hana e manaʻo ʻia ai, no ka laʻana, kahi drone e hoʻohana ʻia no nā hana kiʻekiʻe a i ʻole ka heihei, e pono i kahi kaʻa me kahi KV kiʻekiʻe e hiki ai ke hoʻokō i nā manaʻo.

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I kēia manawa, inā loaʻa iā ʻoe ka drone akā makemake ʻoe e hoʻololi i kāna kaʻa, pono ʻoe e noʻonoʻo i ka ratio ma waena o ka pahu a me ke kaumaha (e hōʻoia i ka noho ʻana o ka drone i ka lewa me ka ʻole o nā pilikia), ka pono o ke kaʻa (heluhelu iā ia). me kēia ʻano: thrust / power i hoʻohana ʻia ma W = g/W, e ʻike pono e lele ʻo ia no ka manawa lōʻihi), ka torque (e hōʻoia i ka ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o kāu drone) a me ka helu o nā pou a me ka RPM i loaʻa i ka kaʻa.

Ma muli o nā ʻēheu āu

Hiki iā mākou ke hoʻokaʻawale i kēia hoʻokaʻawale ʻana i ʻelua mau pūʻulu nui i loaʻa nā ʻano drones, ʻo ka mua o lākou nā mea i loaʻa. ʻēheu rotary ʻokoʻa ka nui a me nā motika. Aia ka lua i nā ʻano drones i loaʻa ʻēheu paʻa.

ʻēheu rotary

ʻO kēia mau ʻano drones i kapa ʻia ʻo "multirotors" a ʻo ia ka mea i hoʻohana nui ʻia ma ke kahua o ka leʻaleʻa a ma ka ʻoihana ʻoihana, e pili ana i ka nui o nā ʻēheu i loaʻa iā lākou, e kapa ʻia lākou i kekahi ala a i ʻole a loaʻa kekahi helu. o nā kaʻa no ka mea he ʻēheu ko kēlā me kēia ʻēheu a lima paha.

  • nā caddisflies: He mau eheu 3 a me 3 enekini, oia kekahi o na mea i ike nui ia ma ka makeke. ʻO ia kekahi o nā mea liʻiliʻi loa ma muli o ka maʻalahi o kona ʻano, no ka mea he ʻekolu mau kaʻa (inā he ʻulaʻula lākou, loaʻa kēlā me kēia i kā lākou wikiwiki wikiwiki), kahi servomotor a me ʻehā propellers. Hōʻike ʻia kona ʻano ma ke ʻano he T e kaulike ai i ke kaumaha o nā mea.
  • Quadcopters: ʻO kēia mau drones he hoʻokahi ʻēheu a lima paha ma mua o ka mea ma mua, ua ʻike nui ʻia lākou ma ka mākeke, me ka mea mua i luna o ka papa inoa o nā mea kūʻai aku maikaʻi loa. ʻO nā Quadcopters ka mea i ʻōlelo ʻia no ke aʻo ʻana e lele i kahi drone, no laila inā makemake ʻoe e hoʻomaka ʻo ia ka mea kūpono. Paʻa loa ke koena kaumaha o kēia ʻano drone ma muli o nā lima keʻa ʻehā.
  • Hexacopters: He ʻeono mau ʻēheu a me ʻeono mau ʻenekini, e hāʻawi ana i ka hiki ke lele inā e nalowale kekahi o lākou. ʻO nā ʻano kaʻa like ʻole i ʻike ʻia ma kēia ʻano drone he mea kupaianaha, ʻo ka poʻe me nā kaʻa palaki e hoʻohana mau ʻia e pāʻani, aʻo ka poʻe me nā kaʻa brushless e hoʻohana ʻia e kiʻi i nā kiʻi, lawe i nā kāmela ʻoihana me kahi gimbal e hoʻopaʻa ai.
  • ʻO Octocopters: Loaʻa i kēia mau drones ka helu nui loa o nā ʻēheu a me nā kaʻa (ʻewalu), ma ka maʻamau, ʻike ʻia kēia mau mea ʻole a pono kā lākou mea e hoʻohui i kēlā helu o nā ʻēheu me nā mea ʻē aʻe. ʻO ia hoʻi, ʻo ʻoe ka mea nāna e hōʻuluʻulu, weld a hana i nā hoʻonohonoho mechanical i hiki iā ia ke loaʻa nā kauoha lekiō a hiki ke hana i ka lewa.

ʻOiaʻiʻo, ʻoi aku ka paʻa ma mua o nā mea ma mua akā ʻo kona nui a me ke kaumaha e ʻoi aku ka paʻakikī o ka hoʻololi ʻana a komo i nā wahi liʻiliʻi. ʻO kēia ke kumu iʻikeʻoleʻia ai lākou i ka lima o ka poʻe kūʻai, no ka mea,ʻaʻole lākou i hoʻohanaʻia no ka leʻaleʻa.

ʻano o nā drones

Pehea e haʻalele ai i ka lumi hālāwai?

ʻēheu paʻa

I kēia manawa, ʻo nā drones ʻēheu paʻa nā mea i hoʻolālā ʻia e like me nā mokulele i hoʻomalu ʻia e ka lekiō. ʻO ka mea maʻamau, hoʻohana pono kēia mau drones i ka neʻe ʻana i ka lewa e hana i ka ikaika e pono ai e noho i ka lele. Hoʻopili lākou i nā kānāwai o ka aerodynamics no laila e hana ana i kahi noiʻi liʻiliʻi iā lākou e hāʻawi iā ʻoe i kahi manaʻo.

Hoʻohana mau ʻia lākou no ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana i nā ʻili ʻāina nui, ʻo ia hoʻi no ka lōʻihi o ka lōʻihi o ka lewa e hiki ai iā lākou ke hele i kahi lōʻihi. Eia nō naʻe, ʻaʻole hiki i kēia mau drones ke haʻalele iā lākou iho, pono e hana i kahi manaʻo i hiki iā lākou ke hoʻomaka i ka lele, ʻaʻole hiki iā lākou ke noho mālie ma kahi kikoʻī no ka mea ua hoʻolālā ʻia lākou e mālama i ka neʻe.

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E like me ka palapala noi i hāʻawi ʻia iā lākou

He mea nui e hoʻomaopopo i ka manaʻo he maʻalahi loa kēia mau mea hana no ka mea ua hoʻohana maʻamau ʻia lākou, akā ʻaʻole pololei loa kēia. He mea nui ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana i hiki ke hoʻopaʻa iā lākou me ka ʻike, ʻoiaʻiʻo e loaʻa kēia me ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa.

Ma kēia manaʻo, e kamaʻilio mākou e pili ana i ʻelua papa helu nui e hiki ke kamaʻilio e pili ana i nā hana a lākou e hana ai: hoʻohana kīwila a me ka hoʻohana pūʻali koa.

hoʻohana kīwila

ʻO nā drones e hana ʻia ma aneʻi e pane i nā hana i hiki ke ʻike ʻia i kēlā me kēia lā a ʻo ia ka mea i ʻike ʻia ma ka mākeke, ʻokoʻa lākou e nā noi i hāʻawi ʻia iā lākou:

  • No ka hoʻomaka ʻana a i ʻole ka hoʻokō ʻana i ka hiki ke hoʻokele mamao o ka mea nāna e mālama.
  • Ka heihei: me ka mana nui, ka wikiwiki a me nā kāmela hoʻolaha e nānā i nā kiʻi o kāu ala i ka manawa maoli.
  • No ka hoʻohana paʻi kiʻi: manaʻo ʻia kēia e paʻi kiʻi a hoʻopaʻa i nā wikiō i ka lele ʻana me nā kiʻi kiʻi kiʻekiʻe loa a hōʻike i kahi kiʻi ʻoi e like me ka hana ʻana me ka Tele HD piha.
  • ʻO nā ʻoihana: ʻike ʻia lākou me nā kiʻi wela, multispectral, 360 ka nui, me nā kiʻi paʻi kiʻiʻoniʻoni, etc. e hoʻohana ʻia ma muli o ka hana i kūkulu ʻia ai lākou
  • mea pāʻani a leʻaleʻa paha
  • Amateur: no nā mea hoʻokele akamai loa a laikini ʻia

Hoʻohana koa

ʻO kēia mau drones ka poʻe e hahai ana i nā lula o ka lele ʻana o nā ʻāina i noho ai lākou, e hoʻokō i nā hana kaua a i ʻole nā ​​​​hana kaua, ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana, ka lawe ʻana i nā lako, e hoʻoholo ai i ka nui o kahi teritore, e ʻimi i nā mea i pakele i ka hakakā kaua a i ʻole ka pōʻino kūlohelohe. kanaka nalo.

I ka pōkole, pane kēia i nā hana i koi ʻia e ka lālā o ka pūʻali koa i komo ai lākou, a me ke kūlana i loaʻa ai i kā lākou mea hoʻokele.

Pehea i hiki mai ai nā drones?

No ka mea ʻike mākou i nā hana a me nā ʻano, pono mākou e ʻike e hele mai kēia mau mea mai ka ʻenehana ʻenehana a me ke kahua kaua. I loko o ka ʻepekema ʻepekema, ʻaʻole hiki ke haʻi ʻia ʻo Nikola Tesla kaulana (mea hana, physicist, mechanical and electrical engineer), i ka makahiki 1898 i patent i ka mea i ʻike ʻia i kēia lā he drone.

Ua manaʻo ʻo ia i kekahi mau makahiki o ka hoʻomohala ʻana i kēia mau mea hana ma ka nānā ʻana i ke kūkulu ʻia ʻana o kēlā mau kaʻa i hoʻomalu ʻia mai kahi mamao aku, ma o nā nalu radiation. I mea e hoʻouna ai i nā leka a i ʻole e hoʻohana ʻia no ka hana kaua, e like me kā mākou e wehewehe ai ma lalo nei.

I ka wā o ke Kaua Honua Mua, ua hoʻomaka ka hoʻomohala ʻana i kēia mau mea hana e hoʻokō i nā pahuhopu ma ia wahi, e like me ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana, ka lawelawe ʻana ma ke ʻano he lewa, pale. Ma hope, hoʻomaka lākou e hoʻohana i ka hoʻouna ʻana i ka ʻike e like me ka piʻi ʻana o ka ʻenehana.

Hana ʻia kēia ma waena o 1914 a me 1918, ma 1916 aia ma United Kingdom kahi i kūkulu ʻia ai kahi kaʻa kaʻa ʻole i hoʻokele ʻia ma ka lekiō. I ka makahiki 1917, ua kūkulu ʻia ʻo Kettering Burg, i manaʻo ʻia ʻo ia ka mea mua o nā kaʻa mokulele unmanned, ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa.

No nā makahiki iwakālua, ua loaʻa iā lākou kahi ʻōnaehana ʻaʻole i ʻae i ka mana like i loaʻa iā lākou i kēia lā, pēlā nō hoʻi ke ʻano o ka hoʻolālā ʻana ma muli o kēlā me kēia ʻano akā e ulu ana i ka holomua ʻana. ʻO kahi laʻana o kēia ka mea i hoʻohana ʻia no kāna hana ʻana (ʻoi aku ka māmā o lākou), a me nā mea i hoʻopili ʻia e like me nā kāmela me ka piʻi ʻana o ka hoʻonā kiʻekiʻe.

ʻO kekahi laʻana, pehea lākou i liʻiliʻi a liʻiliʻi, a me nā mea i loaʻa iā lākou. Ua mālama nā mana nui i kēia, ʻo ka ʻenehana i hoʻohana ʻia e koi i ka holomua nui i mea e loaʻa ai nā hoʻomaikaʻi i hoʻolālā ʻia no ka wā e hiki mai ana a paʻa pū me kēia, ua kūkulu ʻia nā ʻenehana hou e like me Nā ʻano lopako.

Hiki paha iā ʻoe ke hoihoi i kēia ʻike pili: